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all pre-conceptions and study the facts of nature by the method of
induction. Induction as Bacon understands it implies far more
than the reaching of general ideas by the simple enumeration of
particular cases. It implies the search for the " simple natures "
on which the character of the facts studied depends, and this
requires a separation of the elements which are fundamental in
any concrete instance from those which are not. (3) This method
is absolutely certain in its operation and does not call for any
unique ability in the using of it. Anyone with the necessary
patience and good sense can employ it in the discovery of new
knowledge. (4) As an aid to the progress of knowledge, it is
necessary to arrange and classify the various branches of learning,
so as to find out what is already known and what still requires to
be discovered by the scientific method.

These principles, though only imperfectly developed by Bacon
himself and consequently obscure in their implications, made a
great^impressibn on educational..,thought, in^.tM^S^¥exxte^ixth,
Cenfiiiy* In ^e new a£e on which men were entering Bacon
took the place of Aristotle as the master of those who sought to
know and to teach. " The advancement of knowledge " became
the catchword of many of those who aspired to a reformation of
life and thought, and through them came to be an integral part of
the modern ideal of education.


ASCHAM, R.: The Schoolmaster, edited by J. E, B. Mayor, London, 1863 ;
English Works, edited by W. Aldis Wright, Cambridge, 1904.

BACON, FRANCIS : The Philosophical Works, edited by J. M. Robertson, London,
1905 (based on Ellis and Spedding, London, 1857).

BRINSLEY, J.: Ludus Literarius, edited by E. T. Campagnac, Liverpool, 1917.

CASTIGLIONE, B.: The Courtier (Hoby's Translation), Tudor Library, London,

COLET, J.: J. H. Lupton, Life of John Colet, London, 1887.

ELYOT, SIR T.: The Boke named the Governour, edited by H. H. S. Croft,
London, 1880, also by Foster Watson (Everyman Library), London, 1907,

GILBERT, H.: Queen Elisabeth's Academy, edited by F. J. Furnivall, London,

MONTAIGNE, M.: M. Lowenthal, The Autobiography of Michel de Montaigne,
London, 1935 ; Essays, Florio's Translation in the World's Classics, also
translated by George B. Ives, Harvard University Press, 1925, and by
E. J. Trechmann, Oxford, 1927; G. Compayre*, Montaigne* and the
Education of the Judgment, London, 1908; G. Hodgson, The Teacher's
Montaigne, London, 1915 j L. E. Rector, Montaigne on the Education of
Children, New York, 1899.